Journal Articles, Book Reviews, etc.

Invited Contributions:

Texas: The South Meets the West: The View Through AfricanAmerican History,” Journal of the West 44:2 (Spring 2005): 44-52.

"’Justice is Slow But Sure,’: The Civil Rights Movement in the West, 1950-1970,” Nevada Law Journal 5:1 (Fall 2004): 84-92

“Seeking Sunbelt Freedom: African Americans in the Urban Southwest, 1865-1970,” OAH Magazine of History (October 2003)

"In Search of African American History in the Trans-Mississippi West," in Patricia Limerick, William Travis and Julia Hobson, Eds. The Handbook for the New West (W.W. Norton, 2002)

"They Went West," American Legacy: The Magazine of African-American History and Culture 7:3 (Fall 2001)

"African American Men in the American West," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 569 (May 2000) 

"Race and Ethnicity in the Southwest: African American and Arizona History," in Arizona Attorney 34:6 (February 1998)

"African Americans on the American Frontier," in Howard R. Lamar, ed., The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 2500 word essay on 19th Century Western black history.

"A View of the Buffalo Soldiers Through Indigenous Eyes: A Response" Raven Chronicles 7:2 (Summer/Fall 1997)

"Comrades of Color: Buffalo Soldiers in the West, 1866-1917," Colorado Heritage 18: (Spring 1996)

"African Americans in the Enchanted State: Black History in New Mexico, 1539-1990," in Thomas Lark, ed., History of Hope: The African American Experience in New Mexico (Albuquerque: The Albuquerque Museum, 1996)

Articles on Sarah Breedlove Walker, Mary Ellen Pleasant, and Oakland, California, in Charles Phillips and Alan Axelrod, Eds. Encyclopedia of the American West (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1996)

"The Black Towns," "African Americans in the American West" (2,000 word essay), and discussions of black communities in Idaho, Montana and Seattle in Jack Salzman, David Lionel Smith, and Cornel West, eds. Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1995)

"Swinging the Door Wide: World War II Wrought a Profound Transformation in Seattle's Black Community," Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History 9:2 (Summer, 1995)

"In Search of Nigeria: My Year as a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Lagos" in Frank J. Salamone, ed., The Fulbright Experience in Benin (Williamsburg: College of William and Mary Press, 1994)

"African Americans in Pacific Northwest History: Retrospect and Prospect," Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History 7:3 (Fall, 1993)

 "Disparate Images: Black Life in Contemporary Japan," Review of Regge Life's Documentary film, Struggle and Success: The African-American Experience in Japan in Annual Bulletin of the University of Oregon Center for Asian and Pacific Studies (August 1993)

"The Evolution of Post-Bellum African American Culture," in Mary Kupiec Cayton, Elliott J. Gorn and Peter W. Williams, Eds. Encyclopedia of Social History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993), Vol. II. 12,000-word essay on African American history and culture since 1865.

"Beatrice Cannady, An Early Twentieth Century Oregon Civil Rights Activist: A Historical Vignette," Linda Harris, Joseph Franklin and Lillian Whitlow, Eds. Voices of Kuumba: An Anthology of the Northwest African American Writers Workshop, Vol. 4 (Portland: Metropolitan Arts Commission, 1992)

"Reflections on Two Decades in Pursuit of African American History in the Pacific Northwest," Joseph Franklin and Linda Harris, Eds. Voices of Kuumba: An Anthology of the Northwest African American Writers Workshop, Vol. 3 (Portland: Metropolitan Arts Commission, 1991)

Biographical entries for Jesse Jackson, Otto Kerner, Burke Marshall and Huey P. Newton in Historical Dictionary of Civil Rights in the United States (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991)

Biographies of Lloyd Bentsen and Richard Gephardt in Encyclopedia of World Biography (New York: McGraw Hill, 1991)

"The Troublesome Presence: Black Americans and the United States Constitution," Proceedings of the International Conference on Federalism in a Changing World (Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 1988)

Biographies of John B. Connally, Estes Kefauver, John W. McCormack and Edmund Muskie in Encyclopedia of World Biography (New York: McGraw Hill, 1986)

"Slave Family Life on the Fazenda and Plantation: A Comparison of Brazil and the United States, 1750-1850," Proceedings of the First Annual Conference on Records, Family History and Genealogy Vol. 11 (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1980) 

Articles in Refereed Journals:

"The Civil Rights Movement in the American West: Black Protest in Seattle, 1960-1970," Journal of Negro History 80:1 (Winter 1995)

"The Question of Culture: Black Life and the Transformation of Black Urban America," Essays in History: The Journal of the Historical Society of the University of Lagos, Nigeria 6:4 (December, 1989)

(With Donald Grinde) "Native American and Black Interaction in the American Southeast During the Colonial Period," Hampton Institute Journal of Ethnic Studies 9:1 (May, 1981) 

"The Great Migration: The Afro-American Communities of Seattle and Portland During the 1940s," Arizona and the West 23:2 (Summer, 1981)

(With Dennis A. Warner, Karen P. Swope and Michael Balasa) "South by Northwest: An Educational Television Series Designed to Teach Regional Black History," Integrated Education 18 (January-August, 1980)

(With Alonzo Smith) "Racial Discrimination in the Workplace: A Study of Two West Coast Cities During the 1940s,” Journal of Ethnic Studies 8:1 (Spring, 1980)

"Frente Negra Brasileira: The Afro-Brazilian Civil Rights Movement, 1924-1937," Umoja: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies 2:1 (Spring, 1978)

"Black Migration to Washington State, 1940-1950," Western Journal of Black Studies 2:1 (Spring, 1978)

"Blacks in the American West: An Overview," Western Journal of Black Studies 1:1 (Spring, 1977)

"The Chicago Political Machine and Black Ethnic Conflict and Accommodation," Polish-American Studies 29:1 (Spring 1972) 


Book Reviews:

Wing Chung Ng, The Chinese in Vancouver, 1945-80: The Pursuit of Identity and Power (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1999) in Pacific Historical Review 70:3 (August 2001)

Olen Cole, Jr., The African-American Experience in the Civilian Conservation Corps (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999) in Pacific Historical Review 70:1 (February 2001)

David Delaney, Race, Place and the Law, 1836-1948 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998) in American Historical Review 104:5 (December 1999)

Bradford Luckingham, Minorities in Phoenix: A Profile of Mexican American, Chinese American and African American Communities, 1860-1992 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994) in the Pacific Historical Review 65:1 (February 1996)

"The Scholar-Activist and the Challenge of Social Change: W.E.B. Du Bois and Race in America," Review Essay of David L. Lewis, W.E.B. DuBois: Biography of a Race (New York: Henry Holt, 1993) in Reviews in American History, 22:4 (December 1994)

Richard C. Berner, Seattle, 1921-1940: From Boom to Bust (Seattle: Charles Press, 1992) in the Pacific Historical Review, 63:3 (August 1994)

Albert S. Broussard, Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993) in the Pacific Historical Review, 63:2 (May 1994)

David M. Wrobel, The End of American Exceptionalism: Frontier Anxiety from the Old West to the New Deal (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993) in the Oregon Historical Quarterly, 94:2-3 (Summer-Fall 1993)

John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991) in Gulf Coast Historical Review, 9:1 (Fall 1993).

Howard Beeth and Cary D. Wintz, ed., Black Dixie: Afro-Texan History and Culture in Houston (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1992) in Western Historical Quarterly, 24:2 (May 1993).

Richard Berner, Seattle, 1900-1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration, (Seattle: Charles Press, 1991) in Pacific Historical Review, 62:1 (February 1993).

John Hope Franklin, George Washington Williams: A Biography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985) in African Concord, Lagos, Nigeria, and January 1989

Peter I. Rose, Mainstream and Margins: Jews, Blacks and other Americans (New Brunswick, Transaction Books, 1983) in Religious Studies Review, 10:3 (July, 1984)

Scott Ellsworth, Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1982) in Oral History Review 11 (Summer, 1982)

Mark V. Tushnet, The American Law of Slavery, 1810-1860: Considerations of Humanity and Interest (Princeton University Press, 1981) in Journal of Economic History 42:3 (1982)

Philip Foner and Ronald L. Lewis, ed., The Black Worker Vol. 6, The Era of Post-War Prosperity and the Great Depression, 1920-1936 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982), in Umoja: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies 6:1 (Spring 1982)

"Interracial Sex: White Fears, Black Desires and Societal Dilemma," Review Essay of Charles Herbert Stember, Sexual Racism: The Emotional Barrier to an Integrated Society (New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1976) in Umoja: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies 3:3 (Fall, 1979)

Norman L. Crockett, The Black Towns, (Lawrence: The Regents Press of Kansas, 1979) in Utah Historical Quarterly 47:4 (Fall, 1979)

Rudia Halliburton, Jr., Red Over Black: Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1977) in Umoja: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies 2:2 (Summer, 1978)

Alex Haley, Roots: The Saga of an American Family (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1976) in Minnesota History 45:4 (Spring, 1977)